Tuesday, May 31, 2011

How to Make Offers of Proof ... Jurisdictonary Evidence Tutorial

I am not a lawyer. Please see this Disclaimer.

Related Information and Coming Soon
"Standing in the Shadow of the Law", 4th Edition

~~~~~~Tips and Topics from Jurisdictionary~~~~~
Click Here for other Tips & topics from Jurisdictionary

How to Make Offers of Proof ...

From the Jurisdictionary Evidence Tutorial ...
If you begin to offer evidence and, before you can get it before the court, the other side objects and the court sustains the objection, you must move the court to allow you to make clear on the record what the evidence was.
This is called an offer of proof.
If you don't get your evidence in and don't offer the proof, you'll have nothing to appeal if the court rules against you.

You won't be able to win on appeal, because the record for the appellate court to review will not show what the evidence would have been!

Therefore, when your attempt to get evidence in is prevented by the court's sustaining the other side's objection, be sure to make an offer of proof stating what the evidence would have been and what you intended to prove by it.

Then, if an appeal must be taken to the higher court on the basis that you were not allowed to get the evidence in, you'll have a record to show what the evidence was (or would have been) and be able to argue that "but for" the excluded evidence you would have won ... or, at least, that you should be given another chance on remand to the trial court with instructions from the appellate court!

In jury trials, offers of proof should be made outside the hearing of the jury. In some cases an offer of proof may be made at the bench, but if you make your offer of proof at the bench, make certain the court reporter comes over to the bench along with his or her recording device to take down every word you, the judge, and other side say!
  • No record = no appeal possible.
  • No appeal possible = judge free to rule as he chooses!
  • Not good.
To learn more about offers of proof, evidence, motions, hearings, pleadings, witness testimony, and other essential know-how you must have to win in court (with or without a lawyer), discover the easy-to-learn methods I teach in my affordable step-by-step official Jurisdictionary self-help course).
I've been working 25 years as a case-winning lawyer.
Accept no substitutes!

You must do this ... if you want to win.
I show you how in my official 24-hour Jurisdictionary self-help course you can order by clicking this blue link.
Know how to control the judge - or you will lose!
These "Tips & Tactics" newsletters are only the tip of a giant iceberg of lawsuit knowledge you need to win. If you don't yet have my official 24-hour step-by-step self-help course, go to my website and order now!
Learn how to control judges ... so you can WIN!
Dr. Frederick David Graves, JD
May you find Strength in Your Higher Power,
 GranPa Chuck
    Defend Yourself>>

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Why Jurisdictionary as a "Defend Yourself" Study Course?

From the Developer of Jurisdictionary,
Learning how is easy with my affordable, case-winning, official Jurisdictionary step-by-step, 24-hour course. If you don't already have my course, NOW is the time to order and start learning how to avoid legal trickery so you can win your case and overcome your opponent using the official rules ... instead of internet legal mythology!

  • You cannot win if you don't know how to find evidence and get it into the record using your five discovery tools.
Clever argument is not enough.
Those who haven't yet learned how to find evidence go to court with the idea they "already have all the evidence they need". I hear this over and over again. People think because they have a copy of a document or photograph or audio recording that they're sure to win. Then, when they get to trial (when it's too late to do any more discovery) they "discover" all the stuff they thought was "evidence" is inadmissible at trial!

Why lose when it's so easy to learn how to win?
Everyone is talking about Jurisdictionary. People tell their friends. People promote it on their websites and in their emails.
Because my popular Jurisdictionary course works!
That's why!

Don't be left holding an empty evidence bag!
  • Your decision to win is your decision to learn how!
  • Winning lawyers know how to find evidence!
My 25 years of experience as a case-winning lawyer licensed in state and federal courts has shown me this.

Evidence wins lawsuits - not Constitutional arguments.
My Jurisdictionary course will show you much more about how to effectively use interrogatories and all your five discovery tools to get case-winning evidence into the record and force your opponent to cooperate!

Order Now! before the price increase and before your opponent takes advantage of your not knowing how to find evidence and get it in the court's record!
Winning is fun!
Losing is for losers!
Learn from the leader!
Step-by-step in 24 hours!
Winning is easy if you do what I teach in my course!

I know what it takes to win. I practiced law nearly 25 years. I can help you, if you're willing to learn from me!
Pro se people often do not get justice.
Let's examine a few facts:
  1. Most pro se people don't know the rules.
  2. Most pro se people don't know how to prevent the lawyer on the other side from playing tricks with the rules.
  3. Most pro se people make assumptions about what is "admissible evidence" and stuff that isn't.
  4. Most pro se people don't know how to draft their pleadings or motions properly.
  5. Most pro se people don't know why it's important to write proposed orders for the judge to sign.
  6. Most pro se people don't know why, when, or how to make effective objections in court.
  7. Most pro se people don't understand what facts are critical to winning a case and what facts are of no consequence but only muddy the waters with court-confusing insignificance.
  8. Most pro se people don't know why it's so vitally important to cite controlling appellate cases in support of their pre-trial and trial motions.
  9. Most pro se people don't know how to arrange for a written transcript to be made of all proceedings before the court, so they can control the judge.
  10. Most pro se people waste valuable court time with non-essentials, fail to appreciate the needs of others who have their own problems to bring before the court and, as a consequence, tend to make judges dread pro se cases.
Pro se people who know what I explain so simply in the official Jurisdictionary step-by-step 24-hour course are winning and even getting compliments from judges and even opposing lawyers ... because they do it right!

Not all judges are "against" pro se people "just because they are pro se". Most of the judges I knew in my 25 years were good people who cared about other people and did their best to guarantee justice according to the rules.
But! You must know how to protect yourself!

Pro se parties who know the rules and how to use them to protect themselves from courtroom corruption the way my Jurisdictionary step-by-step 24-hour course makes so easy-to-understand don't let crooked lawyers get away with their smoke-and-mirrors tricks!

It does no good to complain after losing.
The difference between winners and losers is the fact that winners learn how to win!
If you want to make it complicated and muddy the pond with all kinds of nutty arguments, you can do so, make the judge angry, and lose when your "evidence" isn't admitted because it isn't "admissible evidence", etcetera.

You can demand your Constitutional Rights, instead of learning about causes of action and their elements that win lawsuits, and you will lose.

You can refuse to learn the rules of evidence, the rules of procedure, and the tactics and strategies my course is so popular for making easy to learn, and you will lose!
If you want to win, get my affordable Jurisdictionary step-by-step 24-hour course now and master the case-winning strategies and tactics I used for 25 years as a case-winning lawyer in state and federal courts.
There is only ONE "Official Jurisdictionary" course!
If you're paying a lawyer, know what your lawyer should be doing to earn his fee and win your case.
If you don't have a lawyer, know what you must do to force the judge do what's right and prevent the lawyer on the other side from cheating.
It's that simple.

My affordable, popular, official Jurisdictionary 24-hour step-by-step lawsuit course will show you how to prepare orders, write powerful pleadings, draft and argue motions, object in court, get admissible evidence into the record, prevent the other side from getting lies into the record, do legal research, compose your legal arguments, and much, much more.

  • You'll learn how to avoid filing an answer by moving the court to dismiss or strike the complaint or require a confusing or poorly-worded complaint to be re-written.
  • You'll learn how to use effective discovery tools to force the other side to produce facts that may lead to admissible evidence.
  • You'll discover how to move the court and demand that the judge enforce your legal rights.
  • In short, you'll learn how to save money, maximize your winning power, and resolve conflicts peacefully and profitably ... according to the rules!
Once you master the simple concepts I teach, you'll be more powerful than most lawyers I met in 25 years as a licensed lawyer in state and federal courts as a licensed bar attorney!
Of course you cannot learn all you need to know about what it takes to win by waiting for my Tips & Tactics each week. You need to learn the case-winning tactics in my affordable Jurisdictionary course that will show you what it takes to win, step-by-step in just 24-hours.
Whether plaintiff or defendant, you cannot hope to win if you don't know what my course teaches.
These tips should convince you to order my complete course ... whether you're a plaintiff or defendant.
If you don't know what opportunities you have in court, you don't have much of a chance of winning!

Let me urge you to order my course today (if you don't already have it) so you won't make the common mistake of assuming you already know everything you need to win!
Remember: Winners are people who know how the game is played to win -- whether plaintiff or defendant.
- - - - - - -
The essential tools and elements are explained in the video you can watch right now by clicking the judge.
Click the Judge to learn more.
You won't believe me, but most lawyers (and nearly all law school professors) don't have a clue what it takes to win. Many law schools don't teach "causes of action" or the elements necessary to prevail. It's true!

Many law schools don't teach how to use your five (5) discovery tools or why you must be courageous and fight the judge and demand your right to get evidence in the record using your discovery tools.

Many lawyers are afraid to upset judges, so they let things slide. They don't object. They don't "instruct" the judge on the law. They just lay back, take their hourly fee, and let their clients lose ... and those who pay lawyers yet don't know what Jurisdictionary teaches about winning are led to the slaughter by their own lawyer.
Sad, but true!
I know what it takes to win. I did this 25 years!
My Jurisdictionary will show you how in just 24-hours, step-by-step!
The Jurisdictionary method wins lawsuits!
Watch my video and see for yourself how easy it is to use knowledge, stealth, and wisdom to win in court!
See what's important, what's not, and how to focus all your energy where it belongs: getting court orders!
Most lawyers never learn what Jurisdictionary makes so easy-to-learn. People have been telling me since I started Jurisdictionary in 1997 that, "Your course should be required in first year law school." But, of course, that's not likely to happen, because what Jurisdictionary shows you isn't politically correct! I teach you how to control judges, instead of bowing to them, I I teach you how to overcome crooked lawyers and their all-too-common sneaky tricks! Political correctness prevents justice too often!
Winning lawsuits is a brutal axe fight!

Thousands of people just like you are winning with my easy-to-learn 24-hour step-by-step course. Ask anyone who has my course. Everyone loves it!
If you don't know what my course teaches, you lose!
End of story!

Winners do what Jurisdictionary makes easy-to-learn and don't wait until trial to get justice!
Those who learn my affordable 24-hour step-by-step Jurisdictionary self-help course win ... no matter how high the odds are stacked against them!

Winners know how to fight to win!
Losers believe internet fables. Losers get their legal education at the barbershop or on websites or expensive weekend seminars run by people who never practiced law, never went to law school, and don't know mud from sand about rules or how to use them to control judges.
Too many good folks believe mythological silver-bullet easy solutions to their legal problems and, as a result, are losing when they would be winning if they knew what I make so easy-to-learn in my Jurisdictionary course!

The internet is infested with hare-brained schemes that sound too good to be true ... and, like the old adage says, "If it sounds to good to be true, it probably isn't."
Remember: The most dangerous falsehoods are ones we most want to believe!

Why not learn from a real lawyer with nearly 25 years of case-winning experience?
My course is not expensive!
People who finish my course say an average 8th grader can learn it all in a single weekend.

If you have a lawyer, you will save thousands in legal fees by knowing what your lawyer should be doing, and at the same time you will maximize your chances for success by making certain your lawyer does what should be done, instead of taking you for a ride to the poorhouse - as happens to too many good people these days.

If you don't have a lawyer, you'll know how to stop the opponent's crooked tricks and control the judge!
To learn more, go to: www.Jurisdictionary.com
My affordable 24-hour step-by-step lawsuit self-help course includes:
  • 5-hour video CD simplifies process of litigation
  • 2 audio CDs present tactics and procedures
  • 15 tutorials on a 4th CD go beyond the basics
  • Free EasyGuide to the Rules of Court
  • Temporary online access while CDs in Mail
Control judges!
Save legal fees!
Defeat crooked lawyers!
Ask anyone who has it: Jurisdictionary Works!

Get your competitive edge before the price increase.
Force judges to enforce the rules, instead of allowing the lawyer on the other side twist the law against you!
You cannot win if you don't know how to control the judge and all the lawyers (including your own lawyer, if you can afford to pay one to go to court for you)!
You've heard the horror stories from others.
Don't let it happen to you!
Oder my course now. If you don't already have it.

Know the rules and how to force everyone to obey!

Know how to draft proper pleadings, how to get your own evidence in the court's record, how to keep the other side from getting their evidence in, how to move the court to enter orders favorable to your cause, and how to use your Jurisdictionary legal know-how and case-winning strategies to control the judge and win your case!

My self-help course is presented in such an easy format people tell us an 8th grader can learn it in just 24 hours!
Know what you must know to win!
Stop courtroom corruption!
I'll show you how in just 24-hours ... step-by-step!
Control judges and lawyers - or lose!

My "Tips & Tactics" newsletters are only introductions to the complete course you need to win. If you don't already have my 24-hour step-by-step self-help course, go to my website and order now!

As Woody Guthrie used to sing, "This Land is our Land," and that includes every courtroom and every courthouse from San Diego to Bangor, Maine. Why let lawyers control our lives with trickery? Why let judges destroy our lives by letting lawyers get away with their trickery?
Forward this newsletter to ALL YOUR FRIENDS!
If you aren't involved in a lawsuit or threatened with one today, learn what my course teaches and help others who will be destroyed by all-too-common courtroom corruption if YOU don't help them learn what it takes to win!

There are more than 150 lawsuits filed every minute in the United States - nearly 100 million each year. Try to imagine how many thousands of good, honest people will be destroyed in the next 7 days just because they have no idea how to protect themselves and have nobody they can trust (or afford) to help them win!

Urge everyone to get my affordable 24-hour course!
Do it for your nation ... and for your children!
Dr. Frederick David Graves, JD
May you find Strength in Your Higher Power,
 GranPa Chuck
    Defend Yourself>>

Monday, May 23, 2011

Why You MUST do Legal Research

I am not a lawyer. Please see this Disclaimer.

Related Information and Coming Soon
"Standing in the Shadow of the Law", 4th Edition

~~~~~~Tips and Topics from Jurisdictionary~~~~~
You cannot win without controlling judges!

And, you cannot control judges unless you research and cite controlling "legal authority" for every legal argument you seek to make on the court's record!

The judge is not the legal authority!
  • Don't let any judge scare you into believing otherwise!Control Judges with Jurisdictionary!
  • The law is the law, not the judge!
  • You must make it crystal clear on the court's record that the judge will be reversed on appeal if he rules against you ... because your legal research found appellate court opinions that control his jurisdiction and his decisions!
If you don't do what the official Jurisdictionary course teaches, the judge will be free to ignore everything you say and rule any way he pleases in spite of what the law and facts prove to the contrary ... because he knows he cannot be reversed on appeal.

The appeal process will not give you another bite at the proverbial apple. Either you make your points with the trial judge by citing "legal authority" that controls him, or run the risk of losing your case and being stuck with the decision forever!
Don't believe me?
Go tell a judge what your personal opinions are about the law and how you think he should rule in your case, and see how far it gets you!
 You will lose if you don't cite "legal authority"!

The only opinions that count in court are the written opinions of appellate court justices who stand in judgment of trial level judges and have power to reverse them if they disagree with appellate decisions in any way!

Your opinions (no matter how clever or persuasive) count for nothing in court.
You must clearly show the judge on the record by citing official legal authorities from appellate decisions, exactly what will happen if the judge rules against you!

This is how smart lawyers win in court.
  • Stupid lawyers are afraid of judges, afraid to threaten appeal, so they lose ... routinely!
  • Clever argument is not enough.
  • Knowing the law is not enough.
  • Even having all the evidence is not enough!
Controlling judges is what wins lawsuits!
You control judges by making clear on the record what higher level appellate courts have ruled in the past, what opinions those higher courts have passed down, and why the higher courts will reverse the trial judge's orders if he rules contrary to what the appellate courts require.

You must provide citations to official legal authority in motions, memoranda, objections, and verbal arguments at hearings and at trial (if you don't win before trial using the easy-to-learn methods we teach in my affordable step-by-step official Jurisdictionary course).
You must tell the judge why you should win - by citing official legal authorities the judge is required to obey:
  • court rules,
  • constitutional provisions,
  • statutes,
  • codes, and
  • most importantly the opinions of higher courts that clarify what those rules, constitutional provisions, statutes, and codes really mean!
What you think they mean doesn't count!
Trust me! I've been at this for 25 years!
  • How you choose to read and interpret the law doesn't count a bit ... not even a tiny bit!
  • The only thing that counts is how the appellate courts read and interpret the law, and what they say the law means in regard to the facts of your case.
  • The other side will cite legal authorities for their case.
You must do the same ... if you want to win.
If you've wandered through a law library in search of legal authority, you were probably amazed to find crowded shelves stuffed with volumes of similar-looking books, differing only by the mysterious numbers printed on their spines. Books that give no hint which one might hide the key to unlock the judge's favor in your case. In a well-stocked law library there are thousands of books.

You cannot possibly read them all to find what you seek, and even the indexes, appendices, and annotations are a complex nightmare that requires years of experience to master.
On the other hand, on-line legal research is easy.
We show you how to do it in our official course.
Learn how to use on-line legal research and how to cite case-winning legal authority in my affordable step-by-step 24-hour official Jurisdictionary self-help course!
Know how to control the judge - or you will lose!
These "Tips & Tactics" newsletters are only the very tip of the iceberg of lawsuit knowledge you need to win. If you don't already have my 24-hour step-by-step self-help course, go to my website and order now !
Learn how to research and cite ... so you can WIN!
Dr. Frederick David Graves, JD
May you find Strength in Your Higher Power,
 GranPa Chuck
    Defend Yourself>>

Sunday, May 22, 2011

Have an attorney who enjoys a challenge?

In this particular discussion of 4 parts, the Administrative Hearing Process is discussed in relationship to Foster Care Givers exercising their legal rights to express their opinion of any concerns brought up against them.

Please note, many issues contained in this blog, could be applied to anyone confronted with alleged allegations, be it a Foster Care Giver, Natural Parent, and/or Relative. One must be keenly aware of what branch of the legal system that they are going to present their case. For example, the level of proof needed varies greatly between an Administrative Hearing, Family Court and/or Criminal Court.

As expressed in Part 4 of this series:
Do you know your rights, if not you have none.

Have an attorney who enjoys a challenge?

Part 1: 

We have already mentioned the phrase "due process". We are confident that you have heard this phrase several times, however, what does it mean to foster parents, how are they being deprived of this right? Let us examine a little deeper....."Read More"

Part 2:

"....parents being placed on the Child Abuse Registry without the appeal process. When you do not agree with the outcome in any of the limited lower courts, you have a right to take it to a higher court to obtain, if you will, a second opinion.... "Read More"

"...Other facts to be aware of; an appeal can be filed only after all other steps have been tried, in other words you must have exhausted other methods of settlement prior to filing an appeal with the courts..."Read More".

Part 4:

In going over the appeal process which gives us access to our justice system we are teaching you the importance in exercising these rights. Now let us go over some of the things we have learned in this session;
1. We learned that we have the right to appeal any decision and take it to a higher court.
2. it is an expensive process; court fees, filing fees, etc.
3. What Administrative Law is and how it works.
4. What APA stands for and how it unified the Administrative procedures.
5. steps of court in the United states in the appeal process.
6. The importance of an appeal in obtaining justice.
7. Do you know your rights, if not you have none.
"Read More"

 Related Reading:


Saturday, May 21, 2011

Lawyer Referral - May want to check it out

  Note: As the blogger, I am not a lawyer. Please see this Disclaimer.

Below is the Introduction to this referral service
"We can refer persons accused of child abuse to lawyers skilled in child abuse cases.  We can also refer persons accused of child abuse, as well the lawyers defending them, to professionals who are experts in the medical and mental health fields that may be able to help.  Because each allegation of child abuse is so unique, however, we cannot offer a list of professionals that we recommend to everyone regardless of the circumstances surrounding the specific allegations. Therefore, to obtain a professional referral best suited for your circumstance, we ask that you call our office. After we discuss the details of your case, we can offer you referrals to the lawyers, physicians,  psychologists, investigators, etc.  that will best meet your specific needs."
The time to act, and seek "initial" advice is immediately when an alleged allegation occurs.

It is so unfortunate that many wait too long, and, unfortunately, get trapped in the web of the accuser and/or the agency.
  • Here are a few introductory articles that you may want to read and/or share with others, before a confrontation occurs:
Finding and Helping Your Lawyer
May you find Strength in Your Higher Power,
 GranPa Chuck
    Defend Yourself>>

Monday, May 16, 2011

The Law of the Case ...

  Note: As the blogger, I am not a lawyer. Please see this Disclaimer.

Tips and Topics from Jurisdictionary
Understand this ... AND WINNING WILL BE EASY!
Every case is won or lost on only two (2) things!
  • The Admissible Evidence
  • The Law of the Case
You don't need to know "every law" that was ever written -
you just need to know "the law of the case".

Consider the fellow piling things in the balance shown here. Imagine he is "building his case". He doesn't have a great number of things on his side. He just has a wee bit more than the other side, and that's all it takes to win!
  • Admissible Evidence
  • Law of the Case
I talked about this Friday evening on my Republic Broadcasting Network show (Friday 9 p.m. Eastern Time). A caller wanted to know how a pro se litigant (someone without a paid lawyer on his side) could possibly win against someone with a law school graduate working for him.
My answer is simple!
You don't need to know everything lawyers know!
You only need to know
     (1) the law of your case and
     (2) how to force the court to admit your evidence and enter the orders you seek.
Sound simple? That's because IT IS SIMPLE!
My Nephew Bryan came to visit this weekend. He's on his way to law school in August. He asked, "How can a pro se litigant ever hope to win against a law school graduate?"
I gave him the same answer.
  • Pro se people only need to know
    (1) the relatively simple "law of the case" and
    (2) how to force the court to admit their evidence and enter judgment based on the "law of the case" and the admissible evidence!
If only we could convince everyone of this simple truth we would stop corruption in high places by the Power of the People commanding our judges and lawyers to obey the law!
Yet, what I tell you today IS ABSOLUTELY TRUE!
To win, you don't really need to know much at all!

Here's an example dear to the hearts of many of you. A bank brings a foreclosure action. What is the law of the case? There are really only a few laws that control the outcome? And, you certainly don't need to go to law school to learn all the law there is to know about notes and mortgages.
  1. Does plaintiff own and hold the promissory note?
  2. Are payments on the note current?
  3. Are other conditions of the note satisfied?
  4. Is the note secured by a valid mortgage?
  5. Does plaintiff own and hold the mortgage?
  6. Are all signatures on the documents genuine?
  7. Has plaintiff satisfied all conditions precedent?
That's about it. There may be a few issues of law that vary from one case to another, but these are common to all foreclosures - and they can be determined in about an hour or two of online legal research thanks to the internet!

Once you're able to argue what the law of the case is, the rest is simply a matter of convincing the court that:
  1. The law of the case is what you say it is, and
  2. You have more admissible evidence of the facts that "fit" with the law of the case.
Now, it may be that the other side takes a different view of "the law of the case". That's ok. Happens all the time. That's what makes lawsuits FUN.
You get to argue
  • The Law of the Case,
and present your
  • Admissible Evidence of the facts in support,
and the party that piles the most "pieces" on their side of the scale wins!

But, you don't need to know all that I know to win! You don't need to know probate law to win a foreclosure, nor do you need to know torts, taxes, or even contract law (beyond that part of it that applies to promissory notes and mortgages)!
Winning IS easy!

When I went to law school back in the early 80's, I had to learn the law about property, contract, torts, evidence, constitutions, crimes, taxes, probate, guardianship, family law, and much, much, much more.

YOU don't need to know all I know to win!

If you have a lawyer, will your lawyer do everything that must be done to win? Will your lawyer fight for you, even when it means making the judge angry? Will your lawyer spend time for you, when you cannot afford to pay for every hour that's needed to win? If you cannot pay your lawyer for all the hours needed to get evidence, prepare for hearings, research the law, draft effective motions, etcetera, who is going to get the job done?

Will your lawyer even tell you what could have been done, what should have been done ... once you lose?
  • What if your lawyer gets up on the wrong side of bed?
  • What if your lawyer is afraid to stand up to the judge and threaten appeal by objecting to the judge's rulings?
  • You'd be amazed how many are afraid of judges!
Where does this leave YOU?

Legal malpractice and courtroom corruption are on the rise these days, yet most people have no idea how to fight back and protect themselves. Most people have no idea what it takes to win in court ... or how easy it is once you learn how!

When a judge lets a lawyer on the other side get away with smoke-and-mirrors games, YOU LOSE!
  • When a judge won't let you make objections to preserve your record for appeal, YOU LOSE!
  • When your own lawyer (if you have one) bails at the last minute when crunch time comes or wimps out when it's necessary to hold the judge accountable to the rules, if YOU don't know what to do, YOU LOSE!
  • Most disturbing of all, if you lose for these reasons YOU CANNOT APPEAL YOUR LOSS!
The only way to protect yourself is to learn!
Know what it takes to win in court!
Get the official Jurisdictionary self-help course!
People have been using Jurisdictionary since 1997 to win in court. They learn the rules of court and how to apply them wisely and effectively ... and you can, too!
May you find Strength in Your Higher Power,
 GranPa Chuck
    Defend Yourself>>